Tommy Firmanda


Introduction: This study aims to identify and synthesise the study of employment outcomes in the transition to adulthood for young people with visual impairment. Methods: The PRISMA Statement Protocol is used as a guide in conducting a systematic review of the literature, including the criteria for choosing a study, a search strategy, and a synthesis of findings. Results: Seven studies of factors influencing post-high school employment outcomes among adolescent transition-age with visual impairment were identified. Six studies used data from National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2), and one study using RSA Case Service Report (RSA-911). Of the seven studies with quantitative design, only one study is a correlational study. All studies reported a significant relationship and influence between work-related factors and post-secondary education employment outcomes. 13 factors affect positively and only 1 factor that has a negative influence. Discussion: Among the 13 factors, eight factors confirm the results of previous studies. While the other five factors still need to be investigated further, although in this study the five factors have a great potential as a predictor of successful work of youth with visual impairment. Limitations of data sources need to be a concern in conducting future studies. Implications for practitioners: The high unemployment rate in this population indicates a lack of evidence-based research in this area. Educational practitioners encouraged to evaluate intervention programs to improve the success of the transition-age youths with vision impairment and publish the findings for later can be use as a basis for developing appropriate livelihood policies and education programs.


Employment, Transition, Post-Secondary School, Blind, Visual Impairment, Factor, Outcomes, Youth

Full Text:



Botsford, K. D. (2014). Quality of life as a transition outcome for youth with visual impairments: Testing competing models using National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) data: University of Northern Colorado.

Cavenaugh, B., & Giesen, J. M. (2012). A systematic review of transition interventions affecting the employability of youths with visual impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 106(7), 400.

Cmar, J. L. (2015). Orientation and Mobility Skills, Outcome Expectations, and Employment for Youth with Visual Impairments: Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2.

Connors, E., Curtis, A., Emerson, R. W., & Dormitorio, B. (2014). Longitudinal analysis of factors associated with successful outcomes for transition-age youths with visual impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness (Online), 108(2), 95.

Ferronato, L., & Ukovic, A. (2014). Enabling positive work outcomes for people with low vision: Two case studies. Work, 47(3), 381-386.

Giesen, J. M., & Cavenaugh, B. S. (2012). Transition-age youths with visual impairments in vocational rehabilitation: A new look at competitive outcomes and services. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 106(8), 475.

Goertz, Y. H., van Lierop, B. A., Houkes, I., & Nijhuis, F. J. (2010). Factors related to the employment of visually impaired persons: A systematic literature review. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 104(7), 404.

Kelly, S. M. (2011). The use of assistive technology by high school students with visual impairments: A second look at the current problem. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 105(4), 235.

McDonnall, M. C. (2010). Factors predicting post-high school employment for young adults with visual impairments. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 54(1), 36-45.

McDonnall, M. C. (2011). Predictors of employment for youths with visual impairments: Findings from the second National Longitudinal Transition Study. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 105(8), 453.

McDonnall, M. C., & Crudden, A. (2009). Factors affecting the successful employment of transition-age youths with visual impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 103(6), 329.

McDonnall, M. C., Crudden, A., & O'Mally, J. (2015). Predictors of employer attitudes toward people who are blind or visually impaired as employees. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 42(1), 41-50.

McDonnall, M. C., & O'Mally, J. (2012). Characteristics of early work experiences and their association with future employment. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 106(3), 133.

McDonnall, M. C., O'Mally, J., & Crudden, A. (2014). Employer knowledge of and attitudes toward employees who are blind or visually impaired. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness (Online), 108(3), 213.

McDonnall, M. C., Zhou, L., & Crudden, A. (2013). Employer attitudes towards persons who are blind or visually impaired: Perspectives and recommendations from vocational rehabilitation personnel. Journal of Rehabilitation, 79(3), 17.

Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., & Group, P. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS med, 6(7), e1000097.

O'Day, B. (1999). Employment Barriers for People with Visual Impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 93(10).

Pogrund, R. L., Darst, S., & Boland, T. (2013). Evaluation study of short-term programs at a residential school for students who are blind and visually impaired. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness (Online), 107(1), 30.

Zhou, L., Smith, D. W., Parker, A. T., & Griffin-Shirley, N. (2013). The relationship between perceived computer competence and the employment outcomes of transition-aged youths with visual impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness (Online), 107(1), 43.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.