Author Information Article Information Abstract Research Background Findings Heading Conclusion References

Indonesian Journal of Disability Studies, Volume 9, Issue 1, June 2022

Benefits for Companies by Hiring Workers with Disabilities

Ida Bagus Surya Manuaba
ORCID ID
Pascasarjana Universitas Brawijaya, Indonesia

Agustina Shinta Hartati
ORCID ID
Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Brawijaya, Indonesia

Ive Emaliana
ORCID ID
Faculty of Cultural Studies, Universitas Brawijaya, Indonesia

Article Information

DOI:

Received: | Revised: | Accepted:

Abstract

Workers with disabilities are still minimally absorbed in the job market in the formal sector. Even though there are several benefits that the company gets when it employs workers with disabilities. This study uses the library study method and interviews with 2 people with disabilities of which 1 works in the formal sector and 1 works in the informal sector. Although the Law on Persons with Disabilities has set a minimum quota for disabled workers in companies, its implementation has not been in line with expectations. Whereas companies that employ workers with disabilities will get benefits such as a good corporate image because they employ workers with disabilities, create an inclusive work environment.

Keywords: Disability, Employment, Inclusive Work Environment

1. Research Background

Article 53 of the Law on Persons with Disabilities requires the government, BUMN, and BUMD to employ people with disabilities at least 2% of the total number of workers while private companies are at least 1%. In addition, the Law on Persons with Disabilities also guarantees the right to decent work for people with disabilities, whether organized by the government or the private sector. However, this rule has not been implemented properly. This is because many job-seeking companies state that they need quite a lot of funds to build accessibility for disabled workers such as rams for wheelchair users and guiding blocks for people with visual impairments. Based on data from the Manpower Office (Disnaker) in charge of district/city government as of January 2020, Research conducted by Alin et al in Persons with Disabilities (PWD) and Labor Force in Indonesia 2015 states that companies employing people with disabilities are limited to physical disabilities, fewer companies employ people with visual impairments and other types of disabilities.

In addition, it is also stated that it is more likely that people with disabilities who work in the informal sector rather than in the formal sector, as well as companies that employ workers with disabilities, are also due to accidents experienced by existing workers. People with disabilities in the world of work are faced with various challenges both from within the world of work and from outside the world of work. These include behavior, discrimination, training and education. In addition, the limited availability of data has also emerged as a problem in the analysis of persons with disabilities in the labor market. Ideally. Accurate and valid data provide more evidence and provide a better understanding of people with disabilities, especially in the implementation of many policies on people with disabilities and the special needs of people with disabilities.

Finding a job is important for people with disabilities, just like other basic needs, including comfort, education, and welfare (Rozali et al, 2017). For Persons with Disabilities to be able and competitive in the labor market, Educational Achievement is very important. Based on Law no. 8 of 2016 concerning Persons with Disabilities in article 5 paragraph (1) letter e states that people with disabilities have the right to get education. Then further rationalization is explained in article 10 of the Law on Persons with Disabilities that people with disabilities have the right to get quality education and get proper accommodation at all lines, levels, and types of inclusive and special education.

However, referring to the 2018 Education statistical data, the percentage of people with disabilities aged 5 years and over who are still studying at school is only 5.48%. This percentage is far from that of non-disabled people, which is 25.83%. This is possible because there are few schools that are intended for people with disabilities, so people with disabilities have to travel long distances to attend formal education. In addition, there is still a lack of adequate accommodation to support the educational process for people with disabilities.

Unfortunately, the lack of participation of people with disabilities in formal education results in low participation of disabled workers in the formal sector. 83%. This is possible because there are few schools that are intended for people with disabilities, so people with disabilities have to travel long distances to attend formal education. In addition, there is still a lack of adequate accommodation to support the educational process for people with disabilities.

2. Content of Script

2.1 Formulation of the problem

Based on the background discussion above, there are also problem formulations that can be drawn, namely:

  1. How is the absorption of people with disabilities in the labor market?
  2. What are the barriers to job seekers in hiring disabled workers?
  3. Opportunities for job seekers and people with disabilities.

It is important to answer this problem formulation so that disabled workers can be maximally absorbed in the job market, especially in the formal sector. The Research on Social Welfare Research Center for the Expertise Board of the DPR RI conducted by Wahyuni in 2019 discussed the challenges of people with disabilities in obtaining the right to decent work and stated that the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Social Affairs had signed an MOU to provide education and training to persons with disabilities who includes training, certification, and job placement. However, in the research that the researchers conducted in Bali, the training was not known. In addition to the Diversity in the World of Work research: Opportunities and Challenges for Persons with Disabilities by Aji and Haryani in 2017 discuss the opportunities and challenges of people with disabilities in legislation. Meanwhile, the research that the researchers conducted answered what benefits the company would get when hiring disabled workers

The research conducted in this paper was carried out by examining the opportunities and challenges of people with disabilities in the job market from the literature and conducting interviews regarding what was found in the literature with 2 disabled workers where 1 person worked in the formal sector and the other worked. in the informal sector.

2.2 Research Methods

In this study, the author uses a library research method by using interpretations in accordance with the facts in the field. This study examines the problems regarding the implementation of employment with disabilities. Subjects in this study are disabled workers in the formal sector and 1 person in the informal sector, using an instrument that has been developed by Aji & Haryani, TN (2017) in Diversity in the World of Work.

3. Discussion

3.1 Absorption of People with Disabilities in the Job Market

Finding a job is important for people with disabilities. By working, people with disabilities can earn income that can be used to meet their own and/or family's needs and improve the social strata of people with disabilities in society. Regarding the absorption of people with disabilities in the job market, based on the provisions of the Law on Persons with Disabilities in article 53, it is mandatory for job seekers to employ disabled workers with a minimum quota. Where in article 53 paragraph (1) of the Law on Persons with Disabilities requires the government, both central and local governments, BUMD, and BUMN to employ disabled workers at least 2% of the total number of workers and in article 53 paragraph (2) requires private companies to employ disabled workers at least 1% of the total number of workers. Moreover, the Law on Persons with Disabilities requires the Government, both central and local governments, to guarantee people with disabilities in the process of recruitment, job acceptance, job training, job placement, job continuity, and career development that is fair and without discrimination to people with disabilities.

However, as quoted from kompas.com, based on data from the Manpower Office in charge of district/city governments as of January 2020, there were 546 companies that employ disabled workers, out of a total workforce of 538,518 people with 4,508 disabled workers (Kompas.com, 2020). This data shows that the absorption of people with disabilities in the world of work is still minimal. In 2019 there is an MOU between The Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Social Affairs to conduct a 3 in 1 training program which includes training, certification, and job placement for persons with disabilities. However, the respondents did not know the program. This shows the need for supervision so that programs that empower people with disabilities can be implemented optimally in the regions and not only focus on mass training but also follow the times and the talents of people with disabilities.

Research conducted by Istifarroh in "Protection of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities to Get Jobs in Private Companies and State-Owned Companies" in 2019 states that although the Law on Persons with Disabilities has set a minimum quota for disabled workers in private companies, BUMD, BUMN, and the government both at the center and regions in article 53, but in practice it is still far from reality (Istifarroh, & Nugroho, 2019). Of the number of people with disabilities who work, it is likely that more disabled workers work in the informal sector than in the formal sector (Alin et al, 2015). Muhadjir Effendy as Coordinating Minister for Human Development and Culture said that in the formal sector the ratio of disabled workers was low, However, if we compare the productivity of disabled workers with non-disabled workers, there is not much difference (Kompas.com 2020).

This shows that people with disabilities have the ability and are able to be productive in the world of work like non-disabled workers. If education and training for people with disabilities is more evenly distributed, more people with disabilities will be able to be active in the job market. And if job seekers in the formal sector provide adequate accessibility and accommodation, more disabled workers will enter the job market in the formal sector. In addition, companies that are accessible to clients with disabilities can increase the level of competition with business competitors (Emir & Rizky, 2017).

3.2 Barriers to Job Seekers in Hiring Workers with Disabilities

With regard to the implementation of Law no. 8 of 2016 concerning persons with disabilities requires job seekers to employ disabled workers with a minimum quota such as private companies of at least 1% as well as BUMN, BUMD, and the government, both central and local governments. This rule has not been implemented effectively because of the obstacles faced by job seekers in employing workers with disabilities. Referring to Rubby Emir (2017) in “Becoming an Inclusive Company” explains that the challenges of disability in the world of work include: stigma and discrimination; lack of reliable data; low work participation and low law enforcement.

Another obstacle for job-seeking companies in employing workers with disabilities is in providing accessibility and proper accommodation for workers with disabilities. Where in building accessibility such as ram and guiding blocks, job seekers assume that it requires a large enough budget so that not all companies are able to provide it. Whereas regarding accessibility, the concept of universal design is known. Where universal design is the design principle of buildings, systems, products, technology, methods, or the environment so that they can be accessed, understood, and used by everyone without restrictions on gender, age, social status, body size, and/or ability (ability) (Ruby, 2017).

Job search companies assume that it requires a large enough budget so that not all companies are able to provide it. Whereas regarding accessibility, the concept of universal design is known. Where universal design is the design principle of buildings, systems, products, technology, methods, or the environment so that they can be accessed, understood, and used by everyone without restrictions on gender, age, social status, body size, and/or ability (ability). Job search companies assume that it requires a large enough budget so that not all companies are able to provide it. Whereas regarding accessibility, the concept of universal design is known. Where universal design is the design principle of buildings, systems, products, technology, methods, or the environment so that they can be accessed, understood, and used by everyone without restrictions on gender, age, social status, body size, and/or ability.

This universal design is not a special requirement for people with disabilities, but it is a good building design for everyone. If the building, system, product, technology, method, or environment is functional, accessible, comfortable, and easy to use, everyone will benefit. For example, ram is not only for people with disabilities who use wheelchairs but also helps elderly people and even makes it easier for other workers who carry trolleys containing a lot of goods. Guiding blocks are not only planes that protrude from other surfaces but are parallel so as not to trip over passersby. Technology is also one of the barriers for job-seeking companies in hiring workers with visually impaired sensory impairments. Because there is still an assumption that people with visual impairments will find it difficult to work using a computer. In fact, along with the development of technology, people with visual impairments are now able to operate computers with the help of a screen reader, where a screen reader is a software that converts the text displayed on the monitor screen into sound that can be accessed by people with visual impairments. Then Managing workforce diversity by respecting employees is one of the challenges faced by companies today. In fact, workers with disabilities who are accepted to work will adapt to their work environment, non-disabled workers only need to modify their communication a little.

3.3 Opportunities for Job Seekers and People with Disabilities

Job seekers in hiring disabled workers will actually get several advantages. Like a good company image in society because it employs workers with disabilities, increasing productivity, people with disabilities tend to be loyal to the company that employs them, resulting in better attendance rates, as well as raising enthusiasm in the workplace (Istifarroh. 2019). In addition, based on the DNetwork-ID book, the benefits of companies employing workers with disabilities in addition to carrying out the mandate of the Law on Persons with Disabilities include:

In addition, the Government based on the Regulation of the Minister of Manpower (Permenaker) Number 3 of 2021 concerning Guidelines for Giving National Awards to Companies and SOEs that Employ Workers with Disabilities will provide bonuses in the form of awards to private companies and BUMNs that properly employ disabled workers and fulfill the provisions. regarding the employment of disabled workers in companies. Other studies also state that the performance of disabled workers is equivalent to that of non-disabled workers even in some fields of work, disabled workers are more competent than non-disabled workers. Workers with disabilities are said to be reliable, punctual, and conscientious, so that it is correlated with work effectiveness so that it ultimately contributes to the overall productivity and profitability of the company (Harnett, 2011).

This positive contribution in increasing the productivity and profitability of the company will make profits for the company. While the opportunities for people with disabilities to earn or increase their income economically to meet their own needs and/or the needs of their families are the opening of job opportunities for people with disabilities because the Law on Persons with Disabilities has set a minimum quota for disabled workers in a company. Where in private companies the minimum quota for disabled workers is 1% of the total number of workers, while in BUMD, BUMN, central government and local government at least 2% of the total number of workers. Even people with disabilities in the process of recruitment, job acceptance, job training, job placement, job continuity, and career development that are fair and without discrimination The Law on Persons with Disabilities requires both the central government and local governments to guarantee it.

4. Conclusions

The absorption of disabled workers in the job market is still minimal even though the Law on Persons with Disabilities has mandated a minimum quota of disabled workers in each company. From the lack of participation of people with disabilities in the labor market, it is also possible that more workers make a living in the informal sector than in the formal sector. Meanwhile, in hiring workers with disabilities, job seekers argue that building accessibility and decent accommodation requires quite a lot of money. Whereas in development, the concept of universal design is known which is not only intended for people with disabilities, but buildings that meet the universal design concept will make it easier for everyone.

Companies that employ workers with disabilities will get benefits such as a good corporate image because they employ workers with disabilities, creating an inclusive work environment, and workers with disabilities tend to be loyal to the companies that employ them so that it will increase productivity which will benefit the company. Meanwhile, people with disabilities will get many job opportunities, because the Law on Persons with Disabilities requires every company to employ disabled workers with a minimum quota of 1% for private companies and 2% for BUMN, BUMD, Central Government and Regional Government.

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