A Learning Media Based on Hands-on Activity in Mathematics for Students Special School



learning media, hands on activity, mathematics, mental retardation, cerebral palsy


The use of hands-on activity-based mathematics learning media for mentally retarded children and cerebral palsy is largely unexplored. Meanwhile, observations of children with special needs (mental retardation and cerebral palsy) at school have not shown good basic math skills, such as counting, recognizing numbers, recognizing letters, performing math operations (for example, addition and subtraction). This study aims to develop a hands-on activity-based learning media model for mentally retarded children and cerebral palsy to improve understanding of mathematics in reading, writing, and arithmetic subjects. The method used is Research and Development, where the subject is the Special School in Bandung, Indonesia. The instruments used in this study were documentation, classroom observation, interviews, and tests of mathematical comprehension abilities. The results showed that a hands-on activity-based learning model could be used to improve basic math skills in reading, writing, and arithmetic for children with mental retardation and cerebral palsy.

Author Biography

Nurjanah Nurjanah, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

Department of Mathematics Education


Alberto, P. A., Waugh, R. E., & Fredrick, L. D. (2010). Teaching the reading of connected text through sight-word instruction to students with moderate intellectual disabilities. Research in developmental disabilities, 31(6), 1467-1474.

Borg, W.R.& Gall, M.D. (1979). EducationalResearch: An introduction. New York & London: Longman

Bradford, S., Shippen, M. E., Alberto, P., Houchins, D. E., & Flores, M. (2006). Using systematic instruction to teach decoding skills to middle school students with moderate intellectual disabilities. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 333-343.

Browder, D. M., Wakeman, S. Y., Spooner, F., Ahlgrim-Delzell, L., &Algozzinexya, B. (2006). Research on reading instruction for individuals with significant cognitive disabilities.

Exceptional children, 72(4), 392-408.

Butler, F. M., Miller, S. P., Lee, K. H., & Pierce, T. (2001). Teaching mathematics to students with mild-to-moderate mental retardation: A review of the literature. Mental retardation,

(1), 20-31.

Critten, V., Campbell, E., Farran, E., & Messer. D. (2018). Visual Perception, visual-spatial cognition and mathematics: assosications and predictions in children with cerebral palsy. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 180-191. ISSN : 0891-4222 DOI : https://doi.org.10.1016/j.ridd.2018.06.007

Haury, L.D dan Rillero. (1994). Persepective of Hands on Science Teaching.ColumbusThe Eric Clamingouse for Science, Mathematics and Enviromental Education. [Online] Retrieved from http://www.Nerel.org/sdis/pathwayg.Html.

Hosseini, E., and Gursel, F.(2012). Development of a guide book for elementary school teachers in inclusionary physical education for students with mental retardardation. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences,47, 1174-1178. ISSN : 1877-0428 DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.796

Jazim, Rina Agustina, dkk. (2018). Layanan Bimbingan Belajar Bagi Anak Retardasi Mental di Kelas III SLB Catur Bina Bangsa. Indonesian Journal of Guidance and Counseling: Theory And Application, 7(3), 49-54.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15294/ijgc.v7i3

Juita Sari, R., Iswari, M. (2019). Meningkatkan Kemampuan Penjumlahan Melalui Media Dadu Bagi Anak Tunagrahita Ringan. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Kebutuhan Khusus, 7(1),166-171.

Kraemer, B. R., &Blacher, J. (2001). Transition for young adults with severe mental retardation: School preparation, parent expectations, and family involvement. Mental Retardation, 39(6),


Kusrini, S. (2018). Upaya Meningkatkan Hasil Belajar Matematika melaluI Penggabungan Metode Drill dan Demonstrasi Siswa Kelas I-B MIN Wonosari Tahun Pelajaran 2016/2017. Jurnal Pendidikan Madrasah, 3(1), 15-26

Kuswardhana, D., Hasegawa, S., &Juhanaini. (2017). The Instructional Thematic Game for Children with Mild Mental Retardation: For Enhancement of Left-Right Recognition Skill. International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), 7(1), pp 469-478. Doi: 10.11591/ijece.v7i1.pp469-478.

Lidman, G., Himmelmann, K., & Peny-Dahlstrand, M. (2020). Managing to learn bimanual activities – experiences from children and adolescents with cerebral palsy – a qualitative analysis. Disability and Rehabilitation, 0(0), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2020.1768305

Luckasson, R., Borthwick-Duffy, S., Buntinx, W.H.E., Coulter, D.L., Craig, E.M., Reeve, A., Schalock, R.L., Snell, M.E., Spitalnik, D.M., Spreat, S., Tassé, M.J. (2002). Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of supports. American Association on Mental Retardation.

McKerr, L., McConnell, E. L., Black, S. A., McClelland, J., Little, J. A., Saunders, K. J., & Dillenburger, K. (2020). Meeting vision needs of children with special educational needs: Case studies of the impact on behaviour and academic achievement. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 48(1), 45–58. https://doi.org/10.1111/bld.12313

Nuari, L.F., Prahmana, R.C.I., & Fatmawati, I. (2019). Learning of division operation for mental retardations’ student through Math GASING. Journal on Mathematics Education, 10(1), 127-142.

Pankewicz, A., Davis, R. K., Kim, J., Antonelli, R., Rosenberg, H., Berhane, Z., & Turchi, R. M. (2020). Children With Special Needs: Social Determinants of Health and Care Coordination. Clinical Pediatrics. https://doi.org/10.1177/0009922820941206

Parmi, & Irwandi. (2020). Optimalisasi Kemampuan Mengenal Bilangan Anak Tunagrahita Melalui Penggunaan Media Gemistek di SLB Negeri 1 Bengkulu Selatan. Jurnal Bioeduscientific, 1(1), hlm. 1-5. DOI: http://jurnal.umb.ac.id/index.php/Bioeduscientific/article/view/673

Passoulunghi, M. C. (2011). Cognitive and emotional factors in children with mathematical learnng disanilities. International Journal of Disability and Education, 61-73. DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1034912X.2011.547.351

Prendergast, M., Spassiani, N.A., & Roche, J. (2017). Developing a Mathematics Module for Students with Intellectual Disability in Higher Education. International Journal of Higher Education, 6(3), pp 169-177. Doi: 10.5430/ijhe.v6n3p169.

Pursitasari, I., Allenidekania, A., & Agustini, N. (2020). Appreciation family support and the abilities of children with special needs to maintain personal hygiene: an Indonesian case study. Pediatric Reports, 12, 39–43. https://doi.org/10.4081/pr.2020.8700

Putri, N.D.A., Salim, A., &Sunardi. (2017). The Effectiveness of The Use of Course Review Horay (CRH) Methods to Improve Numeracy Division Skill of Children With Mild Mental Retardation in SLB Negeri Surakarta, Indonesia Year 2016/2017. European Journal of Special Eduacation Research, 2(3), pp 32-42. Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.252956.

Rejokirono & Dewi, S.R. (2018). Skills Learning Model for Children with Mild Mental Retardation: Best Practice in Vocational Education Management of Mild Mentally Impaired Student. In Proceeding International Seminar on Education (pp. 127-137).

Rahmat, F. (2017). Brain Disorders (Cerebral Palsy) And The Ability Of Academic. Journal of Educational Science and Technology, 3(2), 122-128.

Reis, M. G. A. D., Cabral, L., Peres, E., Bessa, M., Valente, A., Morais, R., ...&Bulas-Cruz, J. A. (2010). Using information technology based exercises in primary mathematics teaching of children with cerebral palsy and mental retardation: A case study. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 9(3).

Saputra, V. H., Darwis, D., & Febrianto, E. (2019). Rancang Bangun Apliasi Game Matematika untuk Penyandang Tunagrahita Berbasis Mobile. Journal of Computer Science and Information Systems, 3(2), hlm. 116-126. DOI:


Sari, J.S.& Iswari, M. (2019). Meningkatkan Kemampuan Penjumlahan Melalui Media Dadu Bagi Anak Tunagrahita Ringan. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Kebutuhan Khusus, 7(1),166-171.

Smidt, K. B., Klevberg, G. L., & Oftedal, B. F. (2020). Home Programme to Improve Hand Function for Children with Bilateral Cerebral Palsy: Beneficial but Challenging. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 40(4), 410–422. https://doi.org/10.1080/01942638.2020.1711842

Suarsana, I. M., Mahayukti, G. A., Sudarma, I. K., & Pujawan, A. A. G. S. (2017). The Effect of Interactive Mathematics Learning Media toward Mathematical Conceptual Understanding on Probability of Hearing-impaired Students. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1165/1/012021

Suchyadi, Y., Ambarsari, Y., & Sukmanasa, E. (2018). Analysis Of Social Interaction Of Mentally Retarded Children. Journal Of Humanities And Social Studies, 2(2), 17-21.

Sudarto, Z., & Sasongko, T. B. (2020). Modification of Puzzle Play as Mathematical Learning Media in Lightweight Mental Retardation Children. Jurnal Pendidikan Inklusi, 3(2), hlm. 117-128. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26740/inklusi.v3n2.p117-128.

Taylor, H. B., Cotter, C., Lindy, J., and Lalor, A.(2018). Belonging, school support and communiations: Essential aspects of students with cerebral palsy in mainstream school. Teaching and Teacher Education, 153-164. ISSN : 0742-051X DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2017.11.016

Van Luit, J. E. (1987). Teaching impulsive children with arithmetic deficits in special education: a selfâ€instructional training program. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 2(4), 237-246.



05-12-2021 — Updated on 22-01-2022

How to Cite

Nurjanah, N., Rohayati, A., & Riza, L. S. (2022). A Learning Media Based on Hands-on Activity in Mathematics for Students Special School. Indonesian Journal of Disability Studies, 8(2), 317–329. Retrieved from https://ijds.ub.ac.id/index.php/ijds/article/view/268