SURVEYING THE DIFFABILITY IN GAME OF THRONES

Parvaneh Shojaei, Hassan Shahabi

Abstract


In every society people with differences in their physiques and abilities are known as people with disabilities- People First Model, even in the Conventions about the Right of the People with Disabilities. This paper tries to study people with different physiques and abilities in Game of Thrones which is created by David Benioff and D. B. Weiss, an adaptation of George R. R. Martin’s fantasy novels, A Song of Ice and Fire. This article studies the Social Model of disability which has been organized as a one-dimensional standard society. This model focuses on disability as a social not individual problem. Based on social model of disability, this paper discusses diff-ability and introduces new binary opposition of diff-ability/sim-ability for disability/non-disability. Struggle between standard society for people with similar physiques and abilities and dis-standard society for people with different physiques and abilities which is obvious in this novel, clearly illustrates how the environment of the society affects the fate and the condition of these people. Considering universal popularity of Game of Thrones and the fact that choice of characters with different physiques and abilities can hardly be incidental and that literary works as cultural artifacts and binary oppositions, which are culturally constructed, this paper attempts to transform negative attitudes of society and create positive attitudes toward this population. Positive terminologies, by emphasizing on abilities, create positive attitudes toward people with different physiques and abilities, and negative terminologies produce negative ones. The disability is a kind of ‘problem’ which has source in society. By making society standard for the diff-abled, they would be able as well as the sim-abled people.


Keywords


Game of Thrones;Binary opposition; Social Model of disability; Diff-ability/Sim-ability; Literature’s role

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adioetomo, S.M., Mont, Daniel and Irwanto. Persons with Disabilities in Indonesia: Empirical Facts and Implications for Social Protection Policies. Jakarta,2014.

Baldrick, Chris. The concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. Oxford: Oxford University Press,2004.

Beauchamp, Miles; Chung, Wendy; Mogilner, Alijandra ; Zakinova, Svetlana ; Malla, Harpreet . Disabled literature: a critical examination of the portrayal of individuals with disabilities in selected works of modern and contemporary American literature. Boca Raton: Brown Walker Press,2015.

Beaven Andrew A; Atienza, Khara T; Aspacio, Mary Ann M; Gonzaga, Kristin Nicol J. Sahiri. “CAREGIVERS CHALLENGES AND QUALITY OF CARE TOWARDS MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN”. Nursing and Health Care (JNHC),2016: 69.

Binary Opposition in Literature: Definition & Examples. Chapter 1 / Lesson 11.Video. Instructor: Francesca Marinaro.

Bolt, David. Changing Social Attitudes Toward Disability: Perspectives from Historical, Cultural, and Educational Studies. London and New York: Routledge,2014.

Bolt, David,. Penketh, Claire. Disability, Avoidance and the Academy: Challenging Resistance. Edited by David Bolt and Claire Penketh. Abingdon, Oxon; New York: Routledge,2016.

Braye, Stuart. “You Shall Not Murder: Atos at the Paralympic Games”.Journal of Disability and Religion,2017.213-229.

Carroll, Noël. The Philosophy of Horror or Paradoxes of the Heart. New York: Routledge,1990.

Cheyne, Ria. “Disability Studies Reads the Romance Sexuality, Prejudice, and the Happily-Ever-After in the Work of Mary Balogh: Encounters between Disability Studies and Cultural Studies”. In book: Culture – Theory – Disability. Encounters between Disability Studies and Cultural Studies. Ed. by Waldschmidt, Anne / Berressem, Hanjo / Ingwersen, Moritz. (201-223). Available from: Ria Cheyne,2017.

Cohen, Shirley. Special People: A Brighter Future for Everyone with Physical, Mental, and Emotional Disabilities. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.,1977.

Davis, Lennard J.“Crips Strike Back: The Rise of Disability Studies.” Bending Over Backwards: Disability, Dismodernism and Other Difficult Positions. New York: New York University Press,2002:33-46.

Disability in Children’s Literature. Transcript of a seminar given to the Arts Council Literature Department. Liz Crow.1990.

Dockterman, E. "Game of Thrones Now Has the Most Emmy Wins Ever".2016.

Donnelly, E. Colleen. “Re-visioning Negative Archetypes of Disability and Deformity in Fantasy: Wicked, Maleficent, and Game of Thrones”. University of Colorado at Denver,2016.

Du Bois, W. E. B. The Souls of Black Folk. New York: Dover Publications.1903.

Ellis, Katie. Disability and Popular Culture: Focusing Passion, Creating Community and Expressing Defiance. Fanham, Surrey: Ashgate,2015.

Fiedler, Leslie. Freaks: Myths and Images of the Secret Self. New York: Simon and Schuster,1976.

Finkelstein, Victor. "Attitudes and disabled people". New York: World Rehabilitation Fund,1980.

Fogarty, Sorcha."Binary Oppositions." The Literary Encyclopedia. London: Literary Dictionary Company.2005.

Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, trans. Alan Sheridan, London: Penguin,1975.

. The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception. London: Tavistock,1973.

Fourie, Pieter. Media Studies Volume Two: Content, Audiences and Production. Lansdowne: Juta Education,2001.

Garland-Thomson, Rosemarie. Extraordinary Bodies: Physical Disability in American Culture and Literature. New York: Columbia University Press,1997.

Guidelines for Selecting Bias-Free Textbooks and Storybooks. New York: Council on Interracial Books for Children,1980.

Hosey, Sara. “‘One of Us:’ Identity and Community in Contemporary Fiction.” Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies,2009:35-50.

"January interview: George R.R. Martin". Richards, Linda, January Magazine, 2001.

Kershaw, Ian. Hitler: A Profile in Power. London: Routledge,2013.

Kutner, Bernard. The Social Psychology of Disability. Rehabilitation Psychology. Washington, D.C.; American Psychological Association,1971.

Lacey, Nick. Narrative and Genre. New York: Palgrave,2000.

LESSON PLAN Subject: SOCIAL STUDIES The Disability Rights Movement. Manders, Jenny. Darius Goes West “Know About It”. Age range: 6th - 12th grade. P:4.

Lippman. UNESCO Braille Courier. UNESCO,1972.

Livneh, Henoch. “On the Origins of Negative Attitudes toward People with Disabilities”. Rehabilitation Literature,1982.

Longmore, Paul K."Screening stereotypes: Images of disabled people in TV and motion pictures”. New York: Praeger,1987.

Longmore, Paul. Why I burned by books and other essays on disability. Philadelphia: Temple UP,2003.

Maleki, Nesser. "Contextualising Kathleen Raine's selected poems in the light of Derridean model of deconstruction". Journal of Language and Literature,2014.

Massie, J. Pascal., Mayer, S. Lauryn. “Bringing Elsewhere Home: A Song of Ice and Fire’s Ethics of Disability”. Ethics and Medievalism. Studies in Medievalism. Edited by Karl Fugelso. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer,2014.

Meyers, Stephen. "Chapter 23. The past dividing the present". In Mitchell, David; Karr, Valerie. Crises, Conflict and Disability: Ensuring Equality. Routledge.2014.

Mitchell, D. T. and Snyder, S. L. Narrative Prosthesis: Disability and the Dependencies of Discourse. University of Michigan Press.2000.

Munyi, Chomba Wa. “Past and Present Perceptions Towards Disability: A Historical Perspective.” Disability Studies Quarterly,2012.

Murphy, Timothy F. & Lappé, Marc. Justice and the human genome project. Berkeley:University of California Press,1994.

O'Keefe, Philip. People with disabilities in India: from commitments to outcomes. Washington, World Bank,2009.

Oliver, Michael J."Capitalism, disability and ideology: A materialist critique of the Normalization principle". A Quarter-Century of Normalization and Social Role Valorization: Evolution and Impact,1999.

Oliver, M., & Barnes, C. The new politics of disablement. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan,2012.

Oliver, Michael; Sapey, Bob. Social work with disabled people. Palgrave Macmillan,2006.

Oliver Michael, Understanding Disability: From Theory to Practice. Macmillan. Basingstoke,1996.

Payne, Michael; Rae Jessica. B. A Dictionary of Cultural and Critical Theory. Wiley-Blackwell,2010.

Proctor, Robert. Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis. Harvard University Press,1988.

Slapin, Beverly. Books Without Bias: A Guide to Evaluating Children’s Books for Handicapism. KIDS Project, Berkeley,1987.

Smith, Greg. “Binary opposition and Sexual Power in Paradise Lost”. Midwest Quarterly,1996.

Snyder, S. & D. Mitchell. Cultural Locations of Disability. University of Michigan Press,2006.

Suharto. “Community-based Empowerment for Translating Diffabled People’s Right to Work: A Case Study in Klaten Regency, Central Java, Indonesia”. Research Paper. The Hague, The Netherlands: International Institutes of Social Studies,2010.

Suharto, Suharto., Kuipers, Pim., & Dorsett, Pat. “Disability terminology and the emergence of ‘diffability’ in Indonesia”. Disability & Society Journal, 2016:693-712.

Thoreson, Richard W., and Kerr, Barbara A. “The Stigmatizing Aspects of Severe Disability: Strategies for Change”. Applied Rehabilation Counseling,1978.

UPIAS. Fundamental Principles of Disability, Union of the Physically Impaired Against Segregation. The Disability Alliance: 96 Portland Place, London,1976.

Winter Is Coming. "Game of Thrones Wins Award Honoring Disability Awareness".2013.

World Health Organization. World report on disability. Geneva: World Health Organization,2011.

Wolfreys, Julian., Robbins, Ruth., & Womack, Kemmeth. Key Concepts in Literary Theory. Edinburgh University Press Ltd,2006.

Wright, Beatrice A. Physical Disability: A Psychological Approach. New York: Harper and Row,1960.

Game of thrones. Emmys.com

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_awards_and_nominations_received_by_Game_of_Thrones.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Game_of_Thrones.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Game_of_Thrones_characters

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/People-first_language

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_model_of_disability

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Union_of_the_Physically_Impaired_Against_Segregation

http://hazlitt.net/feature/cripples-bastards-and-broken-things-disability-game-thrones

http://mrhoyesibwebsite.com/Critical%20Theory/Discourse/Binary%20Opposition.htm.

http://paul-burtner.dental.ufl.edu/oral-health-care-for-persons-with-disabilities/societys-attitude-toward-people-with-disabilities/

http://studylib.net/doc/6898369/binary-opposition

http://www.designtoday.info/brand-new-the-history-of-branding/

https://www.disabled-world.com/disability/".

http://www.englishbiz.co.uk/extras/binaryopposition2.htm.

https://www.sigab.or.id/en/article/company-profile

http://www.slate.com/blogs/browbeat/2015/06/15/many_faced_god_and_arya_stark_how_does_the_game_of_thrones_deity_decide.html

Online Etymology Dictionary.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.